APA (American Psychological Association) is a cite style which is most commonly used to cite sources for papers within the social sciences.
Citing sources in the text in APA Citation
In referring to a work or a quote from a work you should cite APA in the author-date-page number format e.g (Freud, 1927). The last name of the author and the year of the publication should be used when citing source inside the text. If the author is already mentioned in the sentence, no need to mention the author again, just insert the publication year in parentheses after the author has been mentioned.
The page number should follow before the period of the sentence eg. (p. 00)
According to Freud (1927), “Religion is comparable to a childhood neurosis” (p. 53).
Freud (1927) compares religion to a childhood neurosis (p. 53).
He said, “Religion is comparable to a childhood neurosis” (Freud, 1927, p. 53) which I don’t agree on.
APA Works Cited Page
At the end of your paper, you should have a works cited page in APA Citation. It should start on a new page and should be titled “References.”
General rules of Reference list in APA citation:
The spacing should be double space.
The indention of the entry should be a hanging indent.
List the entries alphabetically by the author’s last name.
If you have multiple sources by one author, order it starting with the earliest publication.
Capitalize major words only for journal titles. Do not capitalize prepositions/conjunctions unless they are the first word of the title/subtitle.
For books, chapter or articles in books and magazines, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the title and subtitle.
Capitalize proper nouns.
Italicize titles of longer works like books and journals.
Titles of shorter works such as poems, stories, journal articles, and essays should not be italicized, underlined or inserted in quotation marks.
Examples of APA citations
BOOKS in APA citation
Author Last Name, First Name Initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. City, State Abbreviation: Publisher.
If not in the US, then just write the city.
Moran, A. (2012). Sport and exercise psychology: A critical introduction (2nd Ed). London: Routledge.
If edition other than the first, just add the edition in parentheses after the title of the work.
Type in the authors by their last names and initials; use the ampersand instead of the word “and.”
Kitchener, K. S., & Anderson, S. K. (2012). Foundations of ethical practice, research, and teaching in psychology and counseling. London: Psychology Press.
Three to seven authors:
Separate authors with a comma. The last author should be preceded by an ampersand instead of “and.”
Keith-Spiegel, P., Whitley, B. E., Balogh, D. W., Perkins, D. V., & Wittig, A. F. (2002). The ethics of teaching: A casebook. London: Psychology Press.
More than seven authors:
Mention the first six first followed by a “…” then mention the last author. No need to use the ampersand.
Keith-Spiegel, P., Whitley, B. E., Balogh, D. W., Perkins, D. V., Miller, F. H., Harland, A. A.,… Wittig, A. F. (2002). The ethics of teaching: A casebook. London: Psychology Press.
Chapter or Article in an Edited book:
Only first word of Chapter title and subtitle should be capitalized. Only first word of book should be capitalized. For several authors, follow format above. For several editors, separate with comma and ampersand whenever applicable.
Seligman, M. (1992). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In Snyder, C.R., & Lopez S. (Eds.), Gender handbook of positive psychology. (pp. 107-123). Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania.
JOURNAL ARTICLES in APA style citation
The journal is italicized with all the major words capitalized. The title of the article should only have the first word capitalized.
The basic format:
Author Last Name, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article or chapter. Journal, Volume (issue if available), Pages.
Brandon, N. (2012). Predicting adolescents’ persistence, non-persistence, and recent onset of nonmedical use of opioids and stimulants. Addictive Behaviors, 37 (6), 716-721.
Just like how you would cite APA on a book. Separate with an ampersand.
Brandon, N., & Rogers, P., (2012). Predicting adolescents’ persistence, non-persistence, and recent onset of nonmedical use of opioids and stimulants. Addictive Behaviors, 37 (6), 716-721.
For three or to seven authors, follow the author list as how you would do the book to cite in APA. The same rule applies for seven or more authors.
Use “n.d.” if no date is available. Include the full URL where readers can find it.
Smith, D. (2008). Where to find happiness. Available from URL_GOES_HERE
NEWSPAPERS in APA citation
Articles in newspapers can be usually in several pages. If there is only one page, then use p. For multiple pages, use pp. for an APA citation.
Single page: p. A2
multiple pages: pp. C2, C5-C7
Mention the whole date (year, Month date) eg. (2006, March 26)
Example APA cite:
Richards, S. (2007, April 28). Alcoholic policies around the globe. Washington Post, pp. 2A, 3A.
Include the full URL
Tierney, J. (2011, May 16). A new gauge to see what’s beyond happiness. The New York Times. Retrieved from URL_GOES_HERE
MAGAZINE in APA citation
Basic format (Print):
Borgia, M. (2000, April 9). Passing the mark for global schools. Newsweek, 135, 26-28.
Use n.p. if there is no publisher name given and n.d. if no publishing date is available. Add the full URL to cite in APA.
Ronalds, T. M., Peters, A., & Ricci, D. (2008). Abnormal eating among teens. Cosmopolitan Online, 10(3), 35-36. Retrieved from
WEBSITE in APA citation
Include the date of access because web sites are updated often. Add the complete URL of the site.
Use n.d. if no publishing date is given.
Author, A.(Date if available). Title of document/ article/ or page. Retrieved from URL_GOES_HERE
Evans, E. (2010, May 5). Soup for the soul. Retrieved from URL_GOES_HERE
Evans, E. (n.d.). Soup for the soul. Retrieved from URL_GOES_HERE